Tracy McKenzie is the chair of the History Department at Wheaton College. Check out his review of Ross Douthat's Bad Religion: How We Became a Nation of Heretics at his blog, "Faith and History."
What I especially appreciate about McKenzie's review is his historical approach. Here is a taste:
is essentially a lengthy interpretive essay about the changing contours
of American religious belief since the middle of the last century.
Equally interesting to me, the book concludes with a chapter that
touches on how Americans have remembered their past. This latter may
sound esoteric, but it is extremely relevant to any believer interested
in what it means to think Christianly about history. As I always stress
when speaking to Christian audiences, “Christian history” is not just
ransacking the past for evidence of Christian influence or for stories
about Christian heroes. More broadly, and far more importantly, any
“Christian history” worthy of the name should involve the conscious
application of Christian precepts to our study of the past in all its
breadth and complexity....
...For my part, one of the most important Christian principles to keep
in mind when studying the past involves what the Bible has to say about us.
My understanding of Christian theology tells me that ever since the
Fall, human beings come into the world with two overriding desires: the
desire for self-rule and the desire for self-gratification. These twin
drives are related, of course. We want to rule ourselves in part because
we are determined to please ourselves. What this means when it comes
to the study of history is that we will always struggle with the
temptation to interpret the past in self-justifying ways. Orthodox
Christianity has also long pointed to our propensity to idolatry. In
his Institutes of the Christian Religion, John Calvin observed
centuries ago that the human mind is “a perpetual forge of idols.” In
context, Calvin was addressing the literal worship of physical objects
as a substitute for God, but other writers have broadened Calvin’s
insight to apply more generally, pointing to our tendency to waver in
our allegiance to God, to elevate things or people or desires to the
position of primacy in our hearts that belongs to God alone. This need
not be conscious. It is so easy to intertwine our Christian faith with
some other seemingly compatible allegiance—to a particular social cause,
economic system, approach to education, or political party, for
example—until the former becomes merely a means to promote the latter.
(In his Screwtape Letters, C. S. Lewis called this heresy
“Christianity And . . .”) When it comes to thinking about the past,
however, I think that this temptation to idolatry is most often
manifested when we grapple with the relationship between our identity as
Christians and our heritage as Americans.
Here is where Douthat’s concluding chapter—titled “The City on the
Hill”—is most relevant. Douthat’s focus is on “the heresy that
increasingly disfigures our politics, on the left and right alike: the
heresy of American nationalism.” Douthat’s choice of words is
intentionally provocative, but he is not attacking a Christian
patriotism that expresses gratitude for God’s blessings to our nation,
an appreciation for figures from our past, or a conditional loyalty to
our government. He has in mind instead a constellation of values that,
whether explicitly or implicitly, equates our nation with the new
Israel, conceives of Americans as God’s “chosen people, or assigns to
the United States a missionary role to the world that the Lord has
reserved for his Church.” You may or may not agree with his theological
assessment, but as a historian I would assert that this form of
nationalism has regularly distorted our understanding of the past.